How to Use an Article

Quick Guide to Popup Buttons: Popup windows will only work with JavaScript enabled in your browser and articles viewed within the provided frame structure.

Viewing an Article

The article view is divided into two parts, or frames. The leftmost frame provides navigation within the article itself. The table of contents can be hidden by selecting "hide toc" from the top menu. Here, links to further information and the Living Reviews in European Governance website are provided. Navigation between article sections can also be achieved by clicking the "next", "up", and "previous" buttons.

Screenshot of Article Interface


References cited in an article can be viewed in two ways. Within the text, the author and year of a reference (for example, Treib 2008) is linked to a smaller popup window with the corresponding citation. The complete list of references can be found in the table of contents on the left.

URLs as are part of a reference are active links. Clicking on such a link will open a new browser window.

Additionally, users can "track" a reference along its subsequent citations throughout an article. The small gray button [Reference Icon] in the reference list links to its first citation. Within the article, the gray button next to the reference takes the reader to the next citation of this resource.

Note: If a reference is cited only once, or if there is no subsequent citation, no gray button is displayed and you will not be able to "track" that reference any further.

The reference window is automatically closed when you load a new page.

Footnotes, Equations, Images, and Biographies

Footnote numbers are linked within an article, clicking on these numbers opens the associated footnote in a popup window.

References to equations are linked throughout an article as well. Thus, equations are easily accessible from wherever they are mentioned. Clicking on the purple button [Equation Icon] next to an equation number, opens the referenced equation in a popup window. By clicking on the equation number itself, one is taken to the actual equation in the text.

Similarly, figures are linked through their number and a yellow button [Popup Image]. Clicking on this button brings up the appropriate image in a popup window, clicking on the number takes you to the thumbnail image above or below the paragraph.

Highlighted last names of people indicate a short biographical information, available both in a popup window as well as in a list at the end of the article.

Popup windows are automatically closed when you leave the article.

Article History and Revision/Update Comments

The evolution of an article through updates, revisions and amendments is documented in the article's history. Living Reviews in European Governance provides access to an article's history record in two ways: Either, by clicking the history icon History Icon in any of the article indexes (where articles are listed by publication number, author name, or subject). Alternatively, clicking the link "Article History" in the article's navigational frame also pops up the article history. The history lists publication dates of the various article revisions and short summaries of the changes and additions made.

"Amendments" or "Minor Revisions" that do not justify a full-scale article update (so called "Major Update") are directly inserted into the text of the original article. Beyond a summary of the change in the article history, popup windows at the actual position in the article where the change has been made, provide you with further details, including the original version of the text. To view these Popup Update Comments click on "Update" or the revision number (e.g. A1). Pink buttons [Update Icon] on the "Update details" page and in the text allow you to find and track the revisions/amendments made, by jumping from one to the next within the article.


In order to view popup footnotes, equations, references, and update comments, your internet browser must have enabled JavaScript (allowing it to open windows). If you are experiencing any problems, please contact .

Printing and Downloading

LREG articles are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 3.0 Austria License. In compliance with this license users can download and use articles. Articles can be downloaded from an article's "Download" page. This page can be accessed from two places: (1) the journal's lists of articles, and (2) the article's navigation frame. In addition to PDF versions, an article can also be downloaded in an HTML version for offline reading.


General Information



An open access journal
published at the EIF in cooperation with the
Max Planck Society.